Mostly Native Urban Butterfly Garden Outperforms Lawn Anytime in San Antonio

Last year about this time, we detailed a turf-to-bed conversion in the front yard of our rent house in the downtown Lavaca neighborhood of San Antonio.  We thought it would be helpful to share what happened over the past year on that small square of yard, thoughtfully converted from a drought damaged lawn to a mostly native butterfly garden with a bit of edible landscape thrown in.

The garden is located in Southtown, near downtown San Antonio.  What follows is a month-by month lowdown of a Year in the Life of an Urban Butterfly Garden.   Hopefully you’ll be inspired to get busy and start your own.

January, 2012

Future butterfly garden in Lavaca

Austin transplants hold down the fort at our future Lavaca neighborhood butterfly garden in downtown San Antonio, January 2012. Photo by Monika Maeckle

It actually started in November of 2011.

At the time, work and personal circumstances pulled me back to San Antonio after 12 months of temporary duty in Austin.   I joined my husband at a distinctive green-built downtown “Cube,” one of a pair of rentals conceived by progressive architect/urban pioneer Hilary Scruggs of Operative Ventures.  Our plan was to live there one year while building a house on a nearby empty lot just a mile away on the border of the historic King William district.  We’re now well into Year Two of that plan.

The Cube’s front yard St. Augustine was badly burnt from months of 2011′s historic drought.   Scruggs agreed to let me have my way with part of the yard, planting it as a butterfly garden and edible landscape.

Austin to San Antonio translplants

Austin to San Antonio transplants: rue, milkweed, bulbine and some favorite lantanas.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Because I become irrationally attached to certain plants, I choose to recycle them, digging them up from one yard and moving them to another.   The prior year, upon moving from our large family home in Alamo Heights to Austin, I took along several beloved favorites from my well-established butterfly garden–a large rue bush, several milkweeds, reliable red and mealy blue sages, and a couple of bulbines.  These same plants, and a few new ones, made the 75-mile trek to Austin and were now returning with me.

In December, we  prepped the area via solarization, using mulch and newspaper to kill the turf.   Six-10 layers of newsprint or cardboard covered by three-four inches of mulch and  steady South Texas sunshine will typically kill grass and weeds in just a few weeks, creating a decent environment for transplants, which we installed right away.   Then, we waited.

February

One of the mainstays of my urban butterfly gardens has been various types of daisies, all members of the Helianthus family.  I love dramatic sunflowers in early spring and have a fondness for Cowpen Daisy, because it blooms from March to November and takes our Texas heat so well with little water.

Last year I planted daisy, sunflower and milkweed seeds indoors in  February.   The milkweed would be used for “caterpillar food,” when Monarchs started arriving in March.

Cowpen Daisy Seedlings, February 2012.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Cowpen Daisy Seedlings, February 2012. Photo by Monika Maeckle

March

By the time of our last official estimated freeze date, March 15, Mammoth Sunflower and  Cowpen Daisies started indoors were transplanted to the front yard.   Our transplanted milkweeds were already hosting dozens of migrating Monarchs, who graced us with eggs which we gladly brought inside for fostering.

Mammoth sunflowers were transplanted in early March.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Mammoth sunflowers were transplanted in early March. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Cowpen Daisy

Cowpen Daisy became the foundation of the Lavaca butterfly garden.  Transplanted up front in March, 2012.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Monarch caterpillars brought inside for fostering, harvested from our front yard, March 2012.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Monarch caterpillars brought inside for fostering, harvested from our front yard, March 2012. Photo by Monika Maeckle

The hungry critters devoured sprouts of Tropical mlikweed we had planted in pots specifically for their consumption.

We also installed a few tomato, okra and pepper plants, and of course parsley, rue, and fennel, which double as Swallowtail host plant as well as culinary herbs.

April

Our first happy sunflower bloomers showed themselves in late April.  Unfortunately,

Happy Mammoth sunflower and a variegated fritillary, April 30, 2012  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Happy Mammoth sunflower and a variegated fritillary, April 30, 2012 Photo by Monika Maeckle

garden vandals saw fit to decapitate our sunny soldiers, leaving their seed heads drooping in the breeze.  In one case, a 12-foot tall sunflower was beheaded by a teen walking past.  A worker installing a fence for a neighbor called her out.   The girl dropped the sunflower head and another passing teen lay it on our front porch.  Such are the travails of the unfenced urban garden on a well-trafficked sidewalk.

May

May brought the first tomatoes and a couple of okra.   Cowpen Daisies flushed their yellow blossoms, drawing Bordered Patch butterflies, which use them as a host plant.

By now, Swallowtail butterflies regularly visited the garden, nectaring on the prolific daisies and leaving their lovely, round eggs on our fennel and my well-traveled rue.

Eastern Swallowtails love fennel, parsley and rue.   They show up in late spring and keep coming all summer.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

Eastern Swallowtails love fennel, parsley and rue. They show up in late spring and keep coming all summer. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Swallowtail caterpillar

Acrobatic Swallowtail caterpillar on fennel.   Photo by Monika Maeckle

The Swallowtail caterpillars are highly entertaining, and sport crazy yellow tentacles that seem to reach out and fathom the universe when bothered, giving off a weird scent. Kids love them.

June

The sunflowers were losing their charm as the weight of their heavy heads caused them to slouch forward in sad fashion.   Sparrows and cardinals started perching on their stiff stems, pecking the protein-rich seeds.

Sphinx Moth on Datura, photo by Betsy Betros, via BugGuide.net

Sphinx Moth on Datura, a.k.a. Jimsonweed, photo by Betsy Betros, via BugGuide.net

Tomato and Jimsonweed plants became common hosts for Tomato and Tobacco hornworms, which later morph into the beautiful Sphinx moth.    Loathed by gardeners, I find these caterpillars charming with their eight V-shaped marks on each side and a signature horn on the rear.  Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm, closely resembles its tomato preferring cousin, but shows seven diagonal white lines on its sides and a curved horn.

Tobacco Hornworm on Jimsonweed

Look at that face! Tobacco Hornworm on Jimsonweed.   PHoto by Monika Maeckle

Because they are moths, the caterpillars drop to the ground, cover themselves with earth to later rise as a large, hovering night-flyer.

 July

Fourth of July brings peak summer–long, hot days.   Daisies, milkweed, Jimsonweed and sages are taking the heat well.  Sunflower seeds are ready for collection from their tired, dried heads–here’s how to harvest them.

July:  Time to harvest sunflower seeds.  Just scrape them from the flower head with a spoon. Photos by Nicolas Rivard

We also had our first brood of Bordered Patch butterfly caterpillars on our Cowpen Daisies.   The fuzzy black critters decimated a few leaves, but the birds soon came and made quick snacks of most of them.

Bordered Patch butterfly: Quick change artist?

Bordered Patch butterfly on Cowpen Daisy.   July 2012.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

August

We start to see Queens in late summer.  Queens, Danaus gillippus, share the multiple charms of Monarchs, Danaus plexippus.  Both flaunt large size, flashy, striped caterpillars, and chrysalises that resemble a jade crystal, flecked with gold.

Queens are back in town

Queens are back in town. Here, on  Tropical milkweed..  Male Queens adore Gregg’s Purple Mistfower.  Photo by Monika Maeckle

If you have flowers blooming during the most brutal summer days, you’re likely to see the burnt orange creatures.  Like Monarchs, Queens lay their eggs only on milkweed, but they nectar indiscriminately.  Males have a penchant for Gregg’s purple mist flower.   Apparently they extract minerals necessary for their virility from the native perennial.

September

Late August and early September signal the start of the Monarch migration in our part of the world.  We usually buy our tags from Monarch Watch in August and tag the first Monarchs over Labor Day weekend.

Use your thumbnail to lift tag from sheet and transfer to butterfly.

Labor Day Monarch tagging, 2012:  Use your thumbnail to lift tag from sheet and transfer to butterfly.   Photo by Monika Maeckle

Monarch Watch has run the citizen scientist tagging program for more than 20 years.  Hundreds of thousands of butterflies have been tagged in the two decades by nature lovers like you and me.   The data collected by those citizen scientists has helped piece together the many mysteries of the Monarch migration.

We’ve tagged about 2,000 over the years and had 26 recoveries from the forest floor in Michoacan.  Here’s how to tag Monarch butterflies, if you’re interested.

October

April and October are always some of the best months in the garden in South Texas.  If you’re lucky and plan ahead, you can still be pulling okra off your plants, get a second round of tomatoes and harvest some peppers.

Lavaca butterfly garden, October 2012.  Cowpen daisy is a rock star foundation plant. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Lavaca butterfly garden, October 2012. Cowpen daisy is a rock star foundation plant. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Perhaps now you can see why I love the Cowpen Daisy so much.   The plant just keeps on giving blooms.  The more you cut it back, the more it puts out.  You can shape it into a hedge, let it grow tall and gangly, or chop it short and bushy.  And of course the butterflies love it.

Cowpen Daisy continues to bloom through the fall, drawing all kinds of butterflies

Cowpen Daisy continues to bloom through the fall, drawing all kinds of butterflies as a nectar source. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Monarch caterpillar on Tropical milkweed

Monarch caterpillar on Tropical milkweed in October, 2012. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Butterflies and other pollinators are ubiquitous this time of year because the weather is so perfect for blooms.   

November

November is a great time to collect seeds for next year’s butterfly garden.  It’s prime time for planting many native wildflowers, too.
Some dislike the brown woody look of native annuals that must be  allowed to “go to seed” in order to produce blooms next year.   But for me, the seeds add to the charm of these reliable plants.
Lavaca garden, November 2012

Lavaca Butterfly garden, November 2012. Some Cowpen Daisies are spent–good time to gather seeds for next year. Photo by Monika Maeckle

Tagged Monarch butterfly on leftover Halloween pumpkin

Tagged Monarch butterfly on leftover Halloween pumpkin. November 2012 Photo by Monika Maeckle

And while you’re gathering those seeds, the butterflies just keep on coming.  Our typical first freeze in San Antonio is supposed to be in mid-late November, but climate change has made that so unpredictable that we, like the birds, butterflies, bats and bees, should seize every sunny, warm day and make the most of it.

December

The last month of the year is a good time to make use of those seeds you’ve collected.  Brush them off the sidewalk, put them in a brown paper bag and share them with friends.

Seeds for next year

Seeds for next year, gathered from Lavaca garden, December 2012. Photo by Monika Maeckle

 We also like to make seedballs for ranch wildscaping and guerilla gardening projects. The recipe is easy, inexpensive, and makes for a great group activity.
Rollyo seedballs--why wouldn't you?

Rollyo seedballs–why wouldn’t you?   Makes a fun group activity.  Photo by Hugh Daschbach

Looking back over the year, can you believe how much life–and fun–can be culled from a small butterfly garden?   A modest patch of earth populated with appropriate, native and well-adapted plants beats a vast green lawn anytime.

More on this topic:

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Queen, Monarch Caterpillars and Butterflies: How to Tell the Difference

Found a Monarch caterpillar on my milkweed!

                               –my friend Hugh Daschbach, via text message

How to tell the difference between a Queen or Monarch caterpillar

Every year around this time as the Queen butterflies start to show up, we get lots of questions about how to tell the difference between Queens, Danaus gilippus, and Monarchs, Danaus plexippus.  And with the warm weather that has gripped South Texas throughout November and now December, many of us are still finding eggs and caterpillars in the leaves of our milkweed.   Queens are here en masse.

Three Queen butterflies

Queens have been flying and reproducing this Fall.

As it turned out, the caterpillar in question that my friend Hugh texted me about (excuse the typos) was in fact a Queen.  The giveaway:  it had three sets of protuberances–frequently called antennae, but actually only one set are antennae and the other two are filaments.  The antennae have special sensing properties while the filaments are mostly for show, and to throw off predators.

Queens on Purple Mistflower

Queens on Purple Mistflower

Hugh’s confusion is common:  because of their similar color, size and affinity for milkweed as a host plant, Queens and Monarchs are often mistaken for each other in their various life stages.

But once you look closely, it’s not that hard to tell the difference between Monarchs and Queens.

First, Queens appear solid orange compared to the varying shades of a Monarch.  In the photo above, notice how with their wings folded, the Queens’ solid dark orange is interrupted with occasional white dots–nothing like the striking stained glass veins and color pattern of the Monarch below.

Resident Monarch butterfly on the San Antonio River Museum Reach

Monarch butterfly on the San Antonio River Museum Reach

With their wings open, the difference is even more obvious.  The Queen is solid, the Monarch has varied coloration.  Both of the examples below are male butterflies, as you can see by the prominent display of their family jewels–the defunct pheremone sacs that presumably once drove the lady butterflies wild.

Queen butterfly, wings open

Queen butterfly.  It’s a male.

Female Queens and Monarchs don’t have these prominent markings with wings open.   In Monarchs, the black veins are generally wider and more pronounced in the females.

Monarch butterflies are on the move in Texas

Male Monarch butterfly.  Notice the two dark spots, his “family jewels.”

In the caterpillar stage, the most obvious difference is that Queens have one set of antennae and two sets of filaments, while Monarchs have one set of antennae and one set of filaments. Antennae are on the head of the butterfly, while filaments are at the rear–and in the case of the Queen, in the middle.

Queen caterpillar with three filaments

Queen caterpillar sports three sets of protuberances–two sets of filaments, one set of antennae.

Notice in the photo above, the Queen has what appear to be THREE sets of protuberances.  The Monarch caterpillar only has TWO.  Both wear distinctive yellow, black and white striped suits.   The Queen often will have a slight red blend as the filaments connect to the caterpillar’s torso.  The patterns of the stripes can vary depending on time of year, humidity and diet.

Monarch butterfly caterpillar has two filaments

Monarch butterfly caterpillar has one set of antennae, one of filaments–two total sets.

Scientists don’t fully understand the biological purpose of the filaments, which seem to reach out and “feel” the universe around them.   They swerve and turn in various directions, almost punctuating caterpillar moves like a roving eye or arched eyebrows on the human face.

For the sake of identification, let’s just say their purpose is to signal the difference between Queens and Monarchs.   For more on filaments and what we do and don’t know about them, check this link on the Monarch Watch page.

Queen and Monarch chrysalises

Queen and Monarch chrysalises. Monarch in the middle.

In the chrysalis stage, Queen chrysalises are almost identical to Monarchs, except they are generally smaller.  They also sometimes offer a subtle pink hue, as evidenced in the picture above, Monarch in the middle, Queen on the sides.

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Queen and Monarch Butterflies Share Beauty, Charm and Gold Dotted Chrysalises: How to Tell the Difference

Monarch butterflies get all the press as our most beloved species while the Queen, a close cousin, goes largely ignored.   Life’s not fair, even for butterfly beauties.

Upon close inspection, you’ll find that Queens share the charms of their closely related Monarch sisters, including large size, bright-striped caterpillars and chrysalises that resemble a gold-dotted jade crystal.

If you have flowers blooming now, you’re likely seeing Queens, Danaus gillippus.  Like Monarchs, Queens host only on milkweed, but they nectar indiscriminately.   During this historic Texas drought, they’re clinging to river bottoms, seeking the goldenrod and swamp milkweed that blooms in late summer.  In our gardens, they gravitate to lantanas, pentas, milkweed and purple mistflower.

Queens on Purple Mistflower                                                   Queen butterflies, wings folded, on Purple Mistflower

Queens generally precede the Fall Monarch parade.  While they don’t migrate like Monarchs, they are seasonal, showing up in the Spring and Fall.

Telling the difference between the two can challenge butterfly observers. On first glance, Queens and Monarchs seem identical, but look closely and you’ll see that Queens are solidly burnt orange, almost brown, with wings folded.  Monarchs have much more variation in their coloring.   With wings open, the difference is more striking.  Queens

Queen butterfly, wings openQueen Butterfly, wings open.  Oh, and it’s a male.

display none of the “stained glass” veins of Monarchs (see the banner photo at the top of this web page).  Queens’ open wings boast a solid orange-brown, with only white specks on the outer edges and a black outline.

In the caterpillar stage, Queens flaunt similar Monarch-like yellow and black stripes, but they also sport three sets of filaments, the amusing antennae-like protuberances that seem to feel the world around them in expressive contortions.  Monarchs display only two. Queens also wear a red accent where those filaments connect to the caterpillar, presumably a warning sign to predators:  Stop, don’t eat me!

Queen caterpillar on milkweedQueen Caterpillar on milkweed

As a chrysalis, Monarchs and Queens could be twins, except that Queens are slightly smaller.  Both attach themselves vertically from a a horizontal surface with a silk button after forming a “J” shape, then spin a shiny green chrysalis flecked with gold dots.  While some butterfly species opt for disguises verging on the disgusting in the chrysalis stage–as bird droppings (Red-spotted Purples) and dried crinkled leaves (Gulf Fritillaries)–Queens and Monarchs win the chrysalis beauty pageant.  Their fantastic jade coloring and intriguing gold flecks provoke some folks to wear them as jewelry. (Not something I recommend.)

Queen and Monarch ChrysalisesQueen Chrysalises are usually smaller than Monarch Chrysalises

For more tips on how to tell the difference between Queens and Monarchs, see these blogposts from the Texas Butterfly Ranch archives:

Queen Butterfly or Monarch Butterfly? Sometimes it’s Hard to Tell the Difference

How to tell the Difference between Future Monarch Butterflies and Future Queen Butterflies, Part II

Pollinators Gone Wild: 32 Monarch Butterflies Tagged as Predators Make for a Dangerous World for Butterflies

It was a “pollinator-palooza” this weekend at the ranch, as Monarch butterflies, Queens, Swallowtails, gorgeous red wasps and exotic blue bumblebees competed for nectar on robust Swamp Milkweed stands.   The aphids did their best to suck the life out of the party, but our team of Monarch taggers nabbed 32 in just a few hours.   Oddly, only seven were females.

The abundance of insects made for an irresistible buffet for predators.  Praying mantises, spiders, and birds took their toll on our migrants and their mimics, with Monarch and Queen butterfly detritus littering the Llano River and the banks.  The cruelty of Nature makes for a dangerous world for butterflies–which makes Monarch butterflies’ miraculous 3,000-mile migration to Michoacan, Mexico all the more remarkable.

Wing of dead Queen butterfly in Llano River

Wing of dead Queen butterfly in the Llano River

Spider Eats Monarch Butterfly

Orb weaver spider feasts on Monarch butterfly

In his book, The Dangerous World of Butterflies:  the Startling Subculture of Criminals, Collectors and Conservationsists, award-winning journalist Peter Laufer, Ph.D., explores butterflies’ historically central role in nature, mythology, spirituality and art and how human beings are making the creatures’  existence more challenging.

Praying mantid on milkweed

Lurking in the shadows, praying mantid awaits a butterfly snack

While he doesn’t delve too much into the perils that natural predators pose to butterflies, his comprehensive investigation of what people are doing to make things tougher for lepidoptera is compelling.  Laufer’s chapter on accompanying a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Special Agent who’s been assigned to track and arrest the world’s most wanted butterfly smuggler is a page turner.

Who knew that butterfly smuggling was a rampant black market trade that carries prison sentences of five years and fines of $250,000?  It’s true.  Sneaking endangered specimens into the U.S. for sale to collectors and museums can result in big money for those willing to take the risk.  Sadly, an entire economy has evolved around the breeding, capturing and smuggling of very rare and endangered butterflies all over the world. Until I read Laufer’s book, I had no idea of the magnitude of this problem.

Laufer also offers one of the best descriptions of the process of metapmorphosis I have ever read, describing it as “the ultimate butterfly magic.”   With the help of biologist Rachel Diaz-Bastin in San Francisco, he strikes the appropriate balance of awe and acceptance as Diaz-Bastin fills in the scientific blanks.

“All of their body parts, every cell, liquefies…This is weird stuff.  All of their cells differentiate and begin forming the adult butterfly,”  she says.  ”It’s basically this big butterfly soup inside….It is amazing.”

Agreed. No wonder we’re so fascinated with butterflies.

How to tell the Difference between Future Monarch Butterflies and Future Queen Butterflies, Part II

Queen caterpillar has three sets of "antennae."

As mentioned in a previous post, one way to tell future Queen butterflies from Monarch butterflies-to-be is to observe them in the caterpillar stage.  Queens have three sets of antennae-like protuberances, while Monarchs have two.

I say “antennae-like” because my friend and butterfly consultant, Dr. Daniel Najera, a PhD in Entomoloy from the University of Kansas, Lawrence,  informs me that the word “antennae” is not appropriate for describing all of                                                                                                     these interesting extensions.

Monarch caterpillar has two sets of "antennae"

Apparently antennae have special sensing powers while tentacles are just for show.  Part of the reason for this is to throw off predators (and I’d like to think to amuse us observers).  So technically (or should I say tentacle-ly?) only the set of protuberances on the head of the caterpillar are antennae, while the others are tentacles.

Got all that?

And now, for the photos.  Queen–above. One set of antennae + two sets of tentacles = three antennae-like protuberances.

Monarch–below.  One  set of antennae + one set of tentacles = two antennae-like protuberances.

Glad we got all that straightened out.

Queen Butterfly or Monarch Butterfly? Sometimes it’s Hard to Tell the Difference

In August we start to see alot of orange and black butterflies here in Central and South Texas. Late summer is when the Monarch butterflies begin passing through our neighborhoods on their migration back to Mexico, and this coincides with Queen butterflies making their presence known.

Because of their similar coloration, size and pervasive presence this time of year, Queens and Monarchs are often mistaken for each other.  For those of us who tag Monarch butterflies, this can pose a bit of a problem since Queens don’t migrate to Mexico and Monarchs do.  It’s sometimes a challenge to tell the Queens from the Monarchs, and we don’t like to waste tags or unnecessarily handle butterflies without good reason–like helping to piece together the mysterious puzzle of the Monarch Migration.

So, to avoid unnecessary butterfly wrangling and a waste of good tags, here’s some tips to help you distinguish Monarch butterflies from Queen butterflies.

First of all, Queens’ coloration is pretty solid orange compared to the varying shades of a Monarch.  In the photo above of a Queen on Swamp Milkweed, you can see how he is solid dark orange with occasional white dots–nothing like the striking veins and color pattern of the Monarch pictured at the top of this webpage.

Second, Queens are generally smaller than Monarchs.  Look at the photo at left of two newly emerged butterflies.  You can notice the differences in color variation here with the wings in their folded position.  Also the Queen, on the left, is notably more petite than her grander Monarch cousin.

If you’re lucky enough to run across Monarchs and Queens in their caterpillar stage, it’s easy to spot the difference since the Queen has THREE sets of antennae and the Monarch only has TWO.  Here’s a pictureof a Monarch caterpillar. Notice, she only has two sets of antennae–one on either end.  The Queen has a third set, in the middle of her torso.  Sorry I don’t have a shot of a Queen caterpillar handy, but will post one soon.  Watch this space.

Meanwhile, keep a lookout for black and orange butterflies coming our way. Chances are they’re either Queens or Monarchs.

The Butterfly Life Cycle in a Weekend: Eggs Harvested, Chrysalises Made, and an Eastern Swallowtail Emerges

With chrysalises galore, a Swallowtail born, and scads of Monarch and Queen eggs gathered on the Llano River, we felt we covered the whole life cycle this weekend at the Texas Butterfly Ranch. And we love that!

The Swamp Milkweed is just about to bust out into pink blossoms on the Llano–always a harbinger of the Monarch Butterfly Migration.  We expect an interesting season with all the rain we’ve had, although hesitate to predict numbers as those butterflies can be wildly whimsical.  Last year we thought we’d have a deluge, and then?  They took a turn for the Gulf Coast and we only tagged about 20.

Not to worry….the Texas Butterfly Ranch incubator is running at medium throttle with about 20 Monarch Butterfly and Queen eggs in production.  Soon they’ll spin their chrysalises and join the line-up of the beauties like the one pictured, left.  They should hatch within 10 days.

Until then, we’ll continue to enjoy the Eastern Swallowtail harvest, which delighted us this morning with the arrival of this gorgeous visitor.  

It’s a boy! Queen Butterfly born this morning–a sign that Monarchs will be here soon

What a great Sunday morning!   As I was making coffee, I noticed a Queen chrysalis had turned black and would be hatching soon.   Before I had finished my first cup, this perfect specimen had emerged, leaving the spent chrysalis behind like a cascaron during Fiesta.

After about 90 minutes, we took him outside and he flew off to light on a nearby Desert Willow.

In case you’re wondering, you can tell it’s a boy by those two little black pouches evident when he spreads his wings.   Word is he uses these pheromone glands to get the lady butterflies excited.

More good news:  whenever we start seeing Queens, that means Monarch Butterfly season is just around the corner.  I’ve already seen a couple at the ranch, and harvested some eggs.

Stay tuned for updates.  It’s not too early to order your Monarch tags from Monarch Watch.